Multi-Frame Assignment example

This notebook includes an example of the Multi-Frame Assignment (MFA) algorithm [1].

The multi-frame assignment algorithm maintains and prunes hypotheses over N-Scans. This enables the global optimum assignment choice to be selected over N multiple frames/timesteps/scans.

Global parameters

import numpy as np
from scipy.stats import chi2

np.random.seed(2001)  # Used to set the seed for the numpy random number generator

prob_detect = 0.9  # Prob. of detection
gate_level = 8  # Gate level
prob_gate = chi2.cdf(gate_level, 2)  # Prob. of gating, computed from gate level for hypothesiser
v_bounds = np.array([[-5, 30], [-5, 30]])  # Surveillance area bounds
lambdaV = 5  # Mean number of clutter points over the entire surveillance area
lambda_ = lambdaV/([:, 0] - v_bounds[:, 1]))  # Clutter density per unit volume
slide_window = 3  # Slide window; used by MFA data associator

Plotting functions

First we’ll need some custom plotting functions, used to show the different assignments present within the slide window.

def plot_covar(state, ax, color=None):
    w, v = np.linalg.eig(
        measurement_model.matrix() @ state.covar @ measurement_model.matrix().T)
    max_ind = np.argmax(w)
    min_ind = np.argmin(w)
    orient = np.arctan2(v[1, max_ind], v[0, max_ind])
    ellipse = Ellipse(xy=state.state_vector[(0, 2), 0],
                      width=2 * np.sqrt(w[max_ind]),
                      height=2 * np.sqrt(w[min_ind]),
    return ellipse

def plot_tracks(tracks, ax, slide_window=None):
    artists = []
    for plot_style, track in zip(('r-', 'b-'), tracks):
        mini_tracks = []
        hist_window = len(track) if (slide_window is None or slide_window > len(track)) else slide_window
        for component in track.state.components:
            child_tag = component.tag
            parents = []
            for j in range(1, hist_window):
                parent = next(comp for comp in track.states[-(j+1)].components
                              if comp.tag == child_tag[:-j])

        drawn_states = set()
        for mini_track in mini_tracks:
            # Avoid re-plotting drawn trajectory
            states_to_plot = [state for state in mini_track if state not in drawn_states]
            # Insert state before so line is drawn
            if len(states_to_plot) < len(mini_track):
                states_to_plot.insert(0, mini_track[-(len(states_to_plot)+1)])
            artists.extend(ax.plot([state.state_vector[0, 0] for state in states_to_plot],
                                   [state.state_vector[2, 0] for state in states_to_plot],
            # Avoid re-plotting drawn error ellipses
            for state in set(states_to_plot) - drawn_states:
                artists.append(plot_covar(state, ax, plot_style[0]))

    return artists


Create models for target motion \([x \ \dot{x} \ y \ \dot{y}]\) with near constant velocity and measurements \([x \ y]\).

from stonesoup.models.transition.linear import (
    CombinedLinearGaussianTransitionModel, ConstantVelocity)
from stonesoup.models.measurement.linear import LinearGaussian

transition_model = CombinedLinearGaussianTransitionModel([ConstantVelocity(0.005),
measurement_model = LinearGaussian(ndim_state=4, mapping=(0, 2),
                                   noise_covar=np.array([[0.7**2, 0],
                                                         [0, 0.7**2]]))

Simulate ground truth

Simulate two targets moving at near constant velocity, crossing each other.

import datetime
from ordered_set import OrderedSet

from stonesoup.types.groundtruth import GroundTruthPath, GroundTruthState
truths = OrderedSet()
start_time =

truth = GroundTruthPath([GroundTruthState([0, 1, 0, 1], timestamp=start_time)])
for k in range(1, 21):
        transition_model.function(truth[k-1], noise=True, time_interval=datetime.timedelta(seconds=1)),

truth = GroundTruthPath([GroundTruthState([0, 1, 20, -1], timestamp=start_time)])
for k in range(1, 21):
        transition_model.function(truth[k-1], noise=True, time_interval=datetime.timedelta(seconds=1)),
_ = truths.add(truth)

Simulate measurements

Simulate both measurements and clutter, using parameters and models.

from stonesoup.types.detection import TrueDetection
from stonesoup.types.detection import Clutter

scans = []
for k in range(20):
    detections = OrderedSet()

    for truth in truths:
        # Generate actual detection from the state with a chance that no detection is received.
        if np.random.rand() <= prob_detect:
            measurement = measurement_model.function(truth[k], noise=True)

        # Generate clutter at this time-step
        truth_x = truth[k].state_vector[0]
        truth_y = truth[k].state_vector[2]
        for _ in range(np.random.poisson(lambdaV)):
            x = np.random.uniform(*v_bounds[0, :])
            y = np.random.uniform(*v_bounds[1, :])
            detections.add(Clutter([[x], [y]], timestamp=truth[k].timestamp))

Tracking Components

For predictor and updater a linear Kalman filter.

from stonesoup.predictor.kalman import KalmanPredictor
from stonesoup.updater.kalman import KalmanUpdater

predictor = KalmanPredictor(transition_model)
updater = KalmanUpdater(measurement_model)

For Hypothesiser and Data Associator, the MFA components will be used, wrapping a PDA hypothesiser.


Initiate priors and tracks. With MFA, a Gaussian mixture is used, where the component represents the estimate as updated using the detections (or missed detection) assignments as recorded on the components tag.

from stonesoup.types.state import TaggedWeightedGaussianState
from stonesoup.types.track import Track
from stonesoup.types.mixture import GaussianMixture
from stonesoup.types.numeric import Probability

prior1 = GaussianMixture([TaggedWeightedGaussianState([[0], [1], [0], [1]],
                                                      np.diag([1.5, 0.5, 1.5, 0.5]),
                                                      weight=Probability(1), tag=[])])
prior2 = GaussianMixture([TaggedWeightedGaussianState([[0], [1], [20], [-1]],
                                                      np.diag([1.5, 0.5, 1.5, 0.5]),
                                                      weight=Probability(1), tag=[])])
tracks = OrderedSet((Track([prior1]), Track([prior2])))

And finally run through the scans, and plot the track and assignments within slide window at each frame/timestep.

from matplotlib import animation
from matplotlib.patches import Ellipse
import matplotlib

matplotlib.rcParams['animation.html'] = 'jshtml'

from stonesoup.plotter import Plotter
from stonesoup.types.update import GaussianMixtureUpdate

plotter = Plotter()

frames = []
for n, detections in enumerate(scans):
    artists = []
    timestamp = start_time + datetime.timedelta(seconds=n)
    associations = data_associator.associate(tracks, detections, timestamp)

    for track, hypotheses in associations.items():
        components = []
        for hypothesis in hypotheses:
            if not hypothesis:
                update = updater.update(hypothesis)
        track.append(GaussianMixtureUpdate(components=components, hypothesis=hypotheses))"$x$")"$y$")*v_bounds[0])*v_bounds[1])

    artists.extend(plotter.plot_ground_truths([truth[:n+1] for truth in truths], [0, 2]))
    artists.extend(plotter.plot_measurements(detections, [0, 2], measurement_model))
    # Plot the resulting tracks.


animation.ArtistAnimation(plotter.fig, frames)


Total running time of the script: (0 minutes 10.296 seconds)

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