Tracking AIS Reports Using Stone Soup

Demonstrating the capabilities of Stone Soup using recorded AIS data

In this notebook we will load a CSV file of AIS data from the The Solent, to use as detections in a Stone Soup tracker. We will build the tracker from individual components and display the track output on a map.

Building the detector

First we will prepare our detector for the AIS data, which is in a CSV file, using the Stone Soup generic CSV reader.

from stonesoup.reader.generic import CSVDetectionReader
detector = CSVDetectionReader(
    state_vector_fields=("Longitude_degrees", "Latitude_degrees"),

We use a feeder class to mimic a detector, passing our detections into the tracker, one detection per vessel per minute. This is based on assumption that the identifier MMSI is unique per vessel.

import datetime

# Limit updates to one detection per minute...
from stonesoup.feeder.time import TimeSyncFeeder
detector = TimeSyncFeeder(detector, time_window=datetime.timedelta(seconds=60))

# ... but reduce so only one per MMSI
from stonesoup.feeder.filter import MetadataReducer
detector = MetadataReducer(detector, 'MMSI')

In this instance, we want to convert the Latitude/Longitude information from the AIS file to UTM projection, as this approximates to a local Cartesian space better suited for the models we will use. The UTM zone will be fixed, based on the first detection processed.

from stonesoup.feeder.geo import LongLatToUTMConverter
detector = LongLatToUTMConverter(detector)

Creating the models and filters

Now we begin to build our tracker from Stone Soup components. The first component we will build is a linear transition model. We create a two-dimensional transition model by combining two individual one-dimensional Ornstein Uhlenbeck models. This is similar to ConstantVelocity, which has an additional damping_coeff which models decaying velocity (we assume vessels will slow down to zero over time, rather than continually speed up)

Next we build a measurement model to describe the uncertainty on our detections. In this case, we are just using the measured position (\([0, 2]\) dimensions of state space), assuming from ship’s GNSS receiver system with covariance of \(\begin{bmatrix}15&0\\0&15\end{bmatrix}\)

import numpy as np

from stonesoup.models.measurement.linear import LinearGaussian
measurement_model = LinearGaussian(
    ndim_state=4, mapping=[0, 2], noise_covar=np.diag([15, 15]))

With these models we can now create the predictor and updater components of the tracker, passing in the respective models.

from stonesoup.predictor.kalman import KalmanPredictor
predictor = KalmanPredictor(transition_model)
from stonesoup.updater.kalman import KalmanUpdater
updater = KalmanUpdater(measurement_model)

Creating data associators

To associate our detections to track objects generate hypotheses using a hypothesiser. In this case we are using a Mahalanobis distance measure. In addition, we are exploiting the fact that the detections should have the same MMSI for a single vessel, by gating out detections that don’t match the tracks MMSI (this being populated by detections used to create the track).

from stonesoup.gater.filtered import FilteredDetectionsGater
from stonesoup.hypothesiser.distance import DistanceHypothesiser
from stonesoup.measures import Mahalanobis
measure = Mahalanobis()
hypothesiser = FilteredDetectionsGater(
    DistanceHypothesiser(predictor, updater, measure, missed_distance=3),

We will use a nearest-neighbour association algorithm, passing in the Mahalanobis distance hypothesiser built in the previous step.

from stonesoup.dataassociator.neighbour import NearestNeighbour
data_associator = NearestNeighbour(hypothesiser)

Creating track initiators and deleters

We need a method to initiate tracks. For this we will create an initiator component and have it generate a GaussianState. In this case, we’ll use a measurement initiator which uses the measurement’s value and model covariance where possible. In this case, as we are using position from AIS, we only need to be concerned about defining the velocity prior. The prior we are using has the velocity state vector as zero, and variance of 10m/s.

from stonesoup.types.state import GaussianState
from stonesoup.initiator.simple import SimpleMeasurementInitiator
initiator = SimpleMeasurementInitiator(
    GaussianState([[0], [0], [0], [0]], np.diag([0, 10, 0, 10])),

As well as an initiator we must also have a deleter. This deleter removes tracks which haven’t been updated for a defined time period, in this case 10 minutes.

from stonesoup.deleter.time import UpdateTimeDeleter
deleter = UpdateTimeDeleter(time_since_update=datetime.timedelta(minutes=10))

Building and running the tracker

With all the individual components specified we can now build our tracker. This is as simple as passing in the components.

Our tracker is built and our detections are ready to be read in from the CSV file, now we set the tracker to work. This is done by initiating a loop to generate tracks at each time interval. We’ll keep a record of all tracks generated over time in a set called tracks; as a set we can simply update this with current_tracks at each timestep, not worrying about duplicates.

tracks = set()
for step, (time, current_tracks) in enumerate(tracker.tracks_gen(), 1):
    if not step % 10:
        print("Step: {} Time: {}".format(step, time))


Step: 10 Time: 2016-01-12 13:11:11.218000
Step: 20 Time: 2016-01-12 13:21:11.218000
Step: 30 Time: 2016-01-12 13:31:11.218000
Step: 40 Time: 2016-01-12 13:41:11.218000
Step: 50 Time: 2016-01-12 13:51:11.218000
Step: 60 Time: 2016-01-12 14:01:11.218000
Step: 70 Time: 2016-01-12 14:11:11.218000
Step: 80 Time: 2016-01-12 14:21:11.218000

Checking and plotting results

The tracker has now run over the full data set and produced an output tracks. In this data set, from the below, we can see that we generated different number of tracks:




Versus the number of unique vessels/MMSI:

len({track.metadata['MMSI'] for track in tracks})



We will use the Folium python library to display these tracks on a map. The markers can be clicked on to reveal the track metadata. (Tracks with same MMSI will be same colour, but colour may be used for multiple MMSI)

from collections import defaultdict
from itertools import cycle

import folium
import utm

colour_iter = iter(cycle(
    ['red', 'blue', 'green', 'purple', 'orange', 'darkred',
     'lightred', 'beige', 'darkblue', 'darkgreen', 'cadetblue',
     'darkpurple', 'pink', 'lightblue', 'lightgreen',
     'gray', 'black', 'lightgray']))
colour = defaultdict(lambda: next(colour_iter))

m = folium.Map(location=[50.75, -1], zoom_start=10)
for track in tracks:
    points = [
            *state.state_vector[measurement_model.mapping, :],
            detector.zone_number, northern=detector.northern, strict=False)
        for state in track]
    folium.PolyLine(points, color=colour[track.metadata.get('MMSI')]).add_to(m)
        icon=folium.Icon(icon='fa-ship', prefix="fa", color=colour[track.metadata.get('MMSI')]),
        popup="\n".join("{}: {}".format(key, value) for key, value in track.metadata.items())
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Total running time of the script: ( 0 minutes 28.194 seconds)

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