#!/usr/bin/env python
"""
==========================================================
1 - An introduction to Stone Soup: using the Kalman filter
==========================================================
"""
# %%
# This notebook is designed to introduce some of the basic features of Stone Soup using a single
# target scenario and a Kalman filter as an example.
#
# Background and notation
# -----------------------
#
# Let :math:`p(\mathbf{x}_{k})`, the probability distribution over
# :math:`\mathbf{x}_{k} \in \mathbb{R}^n`, represent a hidden state at some discrete point
# :math:`k`. The :math:`k` is most often interpreted as a timestep, but could be any sequential
# index (hence we don't use :math:`t`). The measurement is given by
# :math:`\mathbf{z}_{k} \in \mathbb{R}^m`.
#
# In Stone Soup, objects derived from the :class:`~.State` class carry information on a variety of
# states, whether they be hidden states, observations, ground truth. Minimally, a state will
# comprise a :class:`~.StateVector` and a timestamp. These can be extended. For example the
# :class:`~.GaussianState` is parameterised by a mean state vector and a covariance matrix. (We'll
# see this in action later.)
#
# Our goal is to infer :math:`p(\mathbf{x}_{k})`, given a sequence of measurements
# :math:`\mathbf{z}_{1}, ..., \mathbf{z}_{k}`, (which we'll write as :math:`\mathbf{z}_{1:k}`). In
# general :math:`\mathbf{z}` can include clutter and false alarms. We'll defer those complications
# to later tutorials and assume, for the moment, that all measurements are generated by a target,
# and that detecting the target at each timestep is certain (:math:`p_d = 1` and
# :math:`p_{fa} = 0`).
#
# Prediction
# ^^^^^^^^^^
#
# We proceed under the Markovian assumption that :math:`p(\mathbf{x}_k) = \int_{-\infty} ^{\infty}
# p(\mathbf{x}_k|\mathbf{x}_{k-1}) p(\mathbf{x}_{k-1}) d \mathbf{x}_{k-1}`, meaning that the
# distribution over the state of an object at time :math:`k` can be predicted entirely from its
# state at previous time :math:`k-1`. If our understanding of :math:`p(\mathbf{x}_{k-1})` was
# informed by a series of measurements up to and including timestep :math:`k-1`, we can write
#
# .. math::
# p(\mathbf{x}_k|\mathbf{z}_{1:k-1}) =
# \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} p(\mathbf{x}_k|\mathbf{x}_{k-1})
# p(\mathbf{x}_{k-1}|\mathbf{z}_{1:k-1})d \mathbf{x}_{k-1}
#
# This is known as the *Chapman-Kolmogorov* equation. In Stone Soup we refer to this process as
# *prediction* and to an object that undertakes it as a :class:`~.Predictor`. A predictor requires
# a *state transition model*, namely a function which undertakes
# :math:`\mathbf{x}_{k|k-1} = f(\mathbf{x}_{k-1}, \mathbf{w}_k)`, where :math:`\mathbf{w}_k` is a
# noise term. Stone Soup has transition models derived from the :class:`~.TransitionModel` class.
#
# Update
# ^^^^^^
#
# We assume a sensor measurement is generated by some stochastic process represented by a function,
# :math:`\mathbf{z}_k = h(\mathbf{x}_k, \boldsymbol{\nu}_k)` where :math:`\boldsymbol{\nu}_k` is
# the noise.
#
# The goal of the update process is to generate the *posterior state estimate*, from the prediction
# and the measurement. It does this by way of Bayes' rule,
#
# .. math::
# p(\mathbf{x}_k | \mathbf{z}_{1:k}) =
# \frac{ p(\mathbf{z}_{k} | \mathbf{x}_k) p(\mathbf{x}_k | \mathbf{z}_{1:k-1})}
# {p(\mathbf{z}_k)}
#
# where :math:`p(\mathbf{x}_k | \mathbf{z}_{1:k-1})` is the output of the prediction stage,
# :math:`p(\mathbf{z}_{k} | \mathbf{x}_k)` is known as the likelihood, and :math:`p(\mathbf{z}_k)`
# the evidence. In Stone Soup, this calculation is undertaken by the :class:`~.Updater` class.
# Updaters use a :class:`~.MeasurementModel` class which models the effect of :math:`h(\cdot)`.
#
# .. image:: ../_static/predict_update.png
# :width: 500
# :alt: Pictorial representation of a single predict-update step
#
# This figure represents a single instance of this predict-update process. It shows a prior
# distribution, at the bottom left, a prediction (dotted ellipse), and posterior (top right)
# calculated after a measurement update. We then proceed recursively, the posterior distribution at
# :math:`k` becoming the prior for the next measurement timestep, and so on.
# %%
# A nearly-constant velocity example
# ----------------------------------
#
# We're going to set up a simple scenario in which a target moves at constant velocity with the
# addition of some random noise, (referred to as a *nearly constant velocity* model).
#
# As is customary in Python scripts we begin with some imports. (These ones allow us access to
# mathematical and timing functions.)
import numpy as np
from datetime import datetime, timedelta
# %%
# Simulate a target
# ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
#
# We consider a 2d Cartesian scheme where the state vector is
# :math:`[x \ \dot{x} \ y \ \dot{y}]^T`. That is, we'll model the target motion as a position
# and velocity component in each dimension. The units used are unimportant, but do need to be
# consistent.
#
# To start we'll create a simple truth path, sampling at 1
# second intervals. We'll do this by employing one of Stone Soup's native transition models.
#
# These inputs are required:
from stonesoup.types.groundtruth import GroundTruthPath, GroundTruthState
from stonesoup.models.transition.linear import CombinedLinearGaussianTransitionModel, \
ConstantVelocity
# And the clock starts
start_time = datetime.now()
# %%
# We note that it can sometimes be useful to fix our random number generator in order to probe a
# particular example repeatedly.
np.random.seed(1991)
# %%
# The :class:`~.ConstantVelocity` class creates a one-dimensional constant velocity model with
# Gaussian noise. For this simulation :math:`\mathbf{x}_k = F_k \mathbf{x}_{k-1} + \mathbf{w}_k`,
# :math:`\mathbf{w}_k \sim \mathcal{N}(0,Q)`, with
#
# .. math::
# F_{k} &= \begin{bmatrix}
# 1 & \triangle t \\
# 0 & 1 \\
# \end{bmatrix} \\
# Q_k &= \begin{bmatrix}
# \frac{\triangle t^3}{3} & \frac{\triangle t^2}{2} \\
# \frac{\triangle t^2}{2} & \triangle t \\
# \end{bmatrix} q
#
# where :math:`q`, the input parameter to :class:`~.ConstantVelocity`, is the magnitude of the
# noise per :math:`\triangle t`-sized timestep.
# %%
# The :class:`~.CombinedLinearGaussianTransitionModel` class takes a number
# of 1d models and combines them in a linear Gaussian model of arbitrary dimension, :math:`D`.
#
# .. math::
# F_{k}^{D} &= \begin{bmatrix}
# F_k^{1} & & \mathbf{0} \\
# & \ddots & \\
# \mathbf{0} & & F_k^d \\
# \end{bmatrix}\\
# Q_{k}^{D} &= \begin{bmatrix}
# Q_k^{1} & & \mathbf{0} \\
# & \ddots & \\
# \mathbf{0} & & Q_k^d \\
# \end{bmatrix}
#
# We want a 2d simulation, so we'll do:
q_x = 0.05
q_y = 0.05
transition_model = CombinedLinearGaussianTransitionModel([ConstantVelocity(q_x),
ConstantVelocity(q_y)])
# %%
# A 'truth path' is created starting at (0,0) moving to the NE at one distance unit per (time) step in each dimension.
truth = GroundTruthPath([GroundTruthState([0, 1, 0, 1], timestamp=start_time)])
num_steps = 20
for k in range(1, num_steps + 1):
truth.append(GroundTruthState(
transition_model.function(truth[k-1], noise=True, time_interval=timedelta(seconds=1)),
timestamp=start_time+timedelta(seconds=k)))
# %%
# Thus the ground truth is generated and we can plot the result.
#
# Stone Soup has an in-built plotting class which can be used to plot
# ground truths, measurements and tracks in a consistent format. It can be accessed by importing
# the class :class:`Plotterly` from Stone Soup as below.
#
# Note that the mapping argument is [0, 2] because those are the x and y position indices from our state vector.
from stonesoup.plotter import Plotterly
plotter = Plotterly()
plotter.plot_ground_truths(truth, [0, 2])
plotter.fig
# %%
# We can check the :math:`F_k` and :math:`Q_k` matrices (generated over a 1s period).
transition_model.matrix(time_interval=timedelta(seconds=1))
# %%
transition_model.covar(time_interval=timedelta(seconds=1))
# %%
# At this point you can play with the various parameters and see how it affects the simulated
# output.
# %%
# Simulate measurements
# ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
#
# We'll use one of Stone Soup's measurement models in order to generate
# measurements from the ground truth. For the moment we assume a 'linear' sensor which detects the
# position, but not velocity, of a target, such that
# :math:`\mathbf{z}_k = H_k \mathbf{x}_k + \boldsymbol{\nu}_k`,
# :math:`\boldsymbol{\nu}_k \sim \mathcal{N}(0,R)`, with
#
# .. math::
# H_k &= \begin{bmatrix}
# 1 & 0 & 0 & 0\\
# 0 & 0 & 1 & 0\\
# \end{bmatrix}\\
# R &= \begin{bmatrix}
# 1 & 0\\
# 0 & 1\\
# \end{bmatrix} \omega
#
# where :math:`\omega` is set to 5 initially (but again, feel free to play around).
# %%
# We're going to need a :class:`~.Detection` type to
# store the detections, and a :class:`~.LinearGaussian` measurement model.
from stonesoup.types.detection import Detection
from stonesoup.models.measurement.linear import LinearGaussian
# %%
# The linear Gaussian measurement model is set up by indicating the number of dimensions in the
# state vector and the dimensions that are measured (so specifying :math:`H_k`) and the noise
# covariance matrix :math:`R`.
measurement_model = LinearGaussian(
ndim_state=4, # Number of state dimensions (position and velocity in 2D)
mapping=(0, 2), # Mapping measurement vector index to state index
noise_covar=np.array([[5, 0], # Covariance matrix for Gaussian PDF
[0, 5]])
)
# %%
# Check the output is as we expect
measurement_model.matrix()
# %%
measurement_model.covar()
# %%
# Generate the measurements
measurements = []
for state in truth:
measurement = measurement_model.function(state, noise=True)
measurements.append(Detection(measurement,
timestamp=state.timestamp,
measurement_model=measurement_model))
# %%
# Plot the result, again mapping the x and y position values
plotter.plot_measurements(measurements, [0, 2])
plotter.fig
# %%
# At this stage you should have a moderately linear ground truth path (dotted line) with a series
# of simulated measurements overplotted (blue circles). Take a moment to fiddle with the numbers in
# :math:`Q` and :math:`R` to see what it does to the path and measurements.
# %%
# Construct a Kalman filter
# ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
#
# We're now ready to build a tracker. We'll use a Kalman filter as it's conceptually the simplest
# to start with. The Kalman filter is described extensively elsewhere [#]_, [#]_, so for the
# moment we just assert that the prediction step proceeds as:
#
# .. math::
# \mathbf{x}_{k|k-1} &= F_{k}\mathbf{x}_{k-1} + B_{k}\mathbf{u}_{k}\\
# P_{k|k-1} &= F_{k}P_{k-1}F_{k}^T + Q_{k},
#
# :math:`B_k \mathbf{u}_k` is a control term which we'll ignore for now (we assume we don't
# influence the target directly).
#
# The update step is:
#
# .. math::
# \mathbf{x}_{k} &= \mathbf{x}_{k|k-1} + K_k(\mathbf{z}_k - H_{k}\mathbf{x}_{k|k-1})\\
# P_{k} &= P_{k|k-1} - K_k H_{k} P_{k|k-1}\\
#
# where,
#
# .. math::
# K_k &= P_{k|k-1} H_{k}^T S_k^{-1}\\
# S_k &= H_{k} P_{k|k-1} H_{k}^T + R_{k}
#
# :math:`\mathbf{z}_k - H_{k}\mathbf{x}_{k|k-1}` is known as the *innovation* and :math:`S_k` the
# *innovation covariance*; :math:`K_k` is the *Kalman gain*.
# %%
# Constructing a predictor and updater in Stone Soup is simple. In a nice division of
# responsibility, a :class:`~.Predictor` takes a :class:`~.TransitionModel` as input and
# an :class:`~.Updater` takes a :class:`~.MeasurementModel` as input. Note that for now we're using
# the same models used to generate the ground truth and the simulated measurements. This won't
# usually be possible and it's an interesting exercise to explore what happens when these
# parameters are mismatched.
from stonesoup.predictor.kalman import KalmanPredictor
predictor = KalmanPredictor(transition_model)
from stonesoup.updater.kalman import KalmanUpdater
updater = KalmanUpdater(measurement_model)
# %%
# Run the Kalman filter
# ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
# Now we have the components, we can execute the Kalman filter estimator on the simulated data.
#
# In order to start, we'll need to create the first prior estimate. We're going to use the
# :class:`~.GaussianState` we mentioned earlier. As the name suggests, this parameterises the state
# as :math:`\mathcal{N}(\mathbf{x}_0, P_0)`. By happy chance the initial values are chosen to match
# the truth quite well. You might want to manipulate these to see what happens.
from stonesoup.types.state import GaussianState
prior = GaussianState([[0], [1], [0], [1]], np.diag([1.5, 0.5, 1.5, 0.5]), timestamp=start_time)
# %%
# In this instance data association is done somewhat implicitly. There is one prediction and
# one detection per timestep so no need to think too deeply. Stone Soup discourages such
# (undesirable) practice and requires that a :class:`~.Prediction` and :class:`~.Detection` are
# associated explicitly. This is done by way of a :class:`~.Hypothesis`; the most simple
# is a :class:`~.SingleHypothesis` which associates a single predicted state with a single
# detection. There is much more detail on how the :class:`~.Hypothesis` class is used in later
# tutorials.
from stonesoup.types.hypothesis import SingleHypothesis
# %%
# With this, we'll now loop through our measurements, predicting and updating at each timestep.
# Uncontroversially, a Predictor has :meth:`predict` function and an Updater an :meth:`update` to
# do this. Storing the information is facilitated by the top-level :class:`~.Track` class which
# holds a sequence of states.
from stonesoup.types.track import Track
track = Track()
for measurement in measurements:
prediction = predictor.predict(prior, timestamp=measurement.timestamp)
hypothesis = SingleHypothesis(prediction, measurement) # Group a prediction and measurement
post = updater.update(hypothesis)
track.append(post)
prior = track[-1]
# %%
# Plot the resulting track, including uncertainty ellipses
plotter.plot_tracks(track, [0, 2], uncertainty=True)
plotter.fig
# %%
# Key points
# ----------
# 1. Stone Soup is built on a variety of types of :class:`~.State` object. These can be used to
# represent hidden states, observations, estimates, ground truth, and more.
# 2. Bayesian recursion is undertaken by the successive applications of predict and update methods
# using a :class:`~.Predictor` and an :class:`~.Updater`. Explicit association of predicted
# states with measurements is necessary. Broadly speaking, predictors apply a
# :class:`~.TransitionModel`, data associators use a
# :class:`~.Hypothesiser` to associate a prediction with a measurement, and updaters use this
# association together with the :class:`~.MeasurementModel` to calculate the posterior state
# estimate.
# %%
# References
# ----------
# .. [#] Kalman 1960, A New Approach to Linear Filtering and Prediction Problems, Transactions of
# the ASME, Journal of Basic Engineering, 82 (series D), 35
# (https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/bb55/c1c619c30f939fc792b049172926a4a0c0f7.pdf?_ga=2.51363242.2056055521.1592932441-1812916183.1592932441)
# .. [#] Anderson & Moore 1979, Optimal filtering,
# (http://users.cecs.anu.edu.au/~john/papers/BOOK/B02.PDF)
# sphinx_gallery_thumbnail_number = 3